Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • History [ ] The name of Khreshchatyk is believed to be derived from the word krest or khrest (). It lies in a valley that is crossed by several ravines. When looked at from above, the valley resembles a cross. A small river, the Khreshchatyk River, a tributary of Kiev's, ran along much of the valley, and still runs underground along much of the street. Russian Empire [ ] For a long time, Khreshchatyk remained an undeveloped ravine between several neighborhoods of Kiev: - the commercial neighbourhood, the Upper City - the administrative neighbourhood, and neighbourhood built around the ('Monastery of the Caves').
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin.He ruled from 1953–1964. Object moved to here.
The development of the area only started in the 19th century. The ravine was filled and accelerating construction quickly followed. By the middle 19th century, Khreshchatyk was developed as Kiev's main thoroughfare in the climate of rapid growth of the city during the in. The street soon became the center of Kiev's commercial life, as the city itself developed into the main commercial center in the Empire's south-west. In 1892, the first electric in the ran in Kiev and by 1894, the line was extended to Khreshchatyk.
The street was served by the tram for about 40 years. Revolution [ ] During the period of chaos after the, many buildings on Khreshchatyk were heavily damaged as the city changed hands many times between,,, and forces. On May 9, 1920, the under General celebrated their by a ceremonial parade on Khreshchatyk. They were driven out by the within weeks. Interbellum [ ].
The was heavily damaged during the. Between the wars, Khreshchatyk underwent major development and reconstruction. Between 1923 and 1937, the street was named after, an early diplomat assassinated in. In the mid-1930s, the tram lines were deconstructed, and the trams replaced. World War II [ ] During, almost every building on the street was mined with explosives by the retreating troops. In September 1941, after troops occupied the city, explosions were set off by radio-controlled fuses from over 400 kilometres away. The demolition of over three hundred buildings on Khreshchatyk became the first operation in history where the long-distance radio-controlled explosions were used for military purposes.
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Much of the surviving historic center of Kiev was demolished. This unprecedented method of warfare caused panic and brought heavy casualties among both the occupiers and city's remaining civilian population. Under German occupation, the street was renamed Eichhornstrasse, after the supreme commander of (Heeresgruppe Kiew) and simultaneously military governor of Ukraine during the previous German occupation, who had been assassinated in Kiev in 1918. Soviet Ukraine [ ]. Khreshchatyk and its seen in the early 1980s. Following the war, Khreshchatyk was rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s. The street was widened to 75-100 meters and new buildings were erected in the Neoclassical.
Important buildings of the new ensemble include the ( Kyivrada), the Central Post Office ( Poshtamt) and Trade-Union House ( Budynok Profspilok). It was used for demonstrations and parades in honor of (until 1969), and the.
The street was one of Kiev's first landmarks that was serviced by the in 1960, (see ) and was the system's first transfer station when the second line opened in 1976. On May 1, 1986, a few days after the, Soviet authorities held a traditional parade on Khreshchatyk, in order to 'calm people' and 'prevent panic' caused by the disaster. Thousands of Kievans, including many children, were exposed to dangerous doses of.
In the late 1980s, the of the Central Post Office building partially collapsed during heavy rain, killing a dozen people and injuring some. The porch was rebuilt in the following years according to its original design.
On July 24, 1990, the first ceremonial raising of the took place on Khreshchatyk, on the large flagstaff of the. Due to its central location, the street became the traditional place for political rallies.
Independent Ukraine [ ]. Imperial, Stalinist and modern buildings on the Khreshchatyk Following the and Ukraine becoming independent, the avenue gained a wider context as the central street of the country.
During the late 1990s, a complex reconstruction took place, and most of the buildings were cosmetically cleaned up from elements, structurally upgraded and enhanced with colourful illumination. Modern electronic billboards and screens were also installed.